BEZIERS HISTORY

"Si Deus in terris, vellet habitare Biterris"

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BEZIERS' LANDMARK DATES

 120 000 BC

Some nomads tribes live on the place (attested by the discovery of primitives tools as the 'biface lancéolé')

 5000/1800 BC

First sedentary inhabitants on the Béziers' hill

 600 BC

Construction of the Ensérune Oppidum.

 600/500 BC

Construction by the Greeks of the first Béziers/Betara city
(more than 40 hectares (480,000 sq. yard) !)

 around 400 BC

Total Blackout : The city seems to be deserted (epidemics ?)

 350 / 281 BC

Volces occupation.

 200 BC

Gallic Longostaletes settlement

 121 / 118 BC

Construction of the Domitian way.

 105 BC

Kimris army and Teutons occupation.

 36 BC

Béziers become the Julia baeterrae Roman colony.

 77

Viticultural crisis and vineyard destroyed.

 Around 250

Saint Aphrodise is beheaded - Construction of the firsts remparts.

 450

Visigoths occupation.

 Years 500

The IVth century ancient Romana necroplolis (St Aphrodise) shelters St Aphrodise's body and his faithful ones.

 Around 650

Firsts (?) parts of St Nazaire church.

 680

The Biterrois support rebellion against the king Wamba.

 724-725

Saracenic occupation (under Ambessa rules - vineyard destroyed - churches sacked.

 736-737

Francs occupation (Charles Martel) - Fortifications destroyed.

 Around 800

Construction of the St Jacques church.

 889

Enlargement of St Nazaire - the St Aphrodise church is in abandonment.

 Beginning 900

St Aphrodise church restoration.

 Beginning 1000

Construction of the Sainte Madeleine church.

 Around 1090

Construction of the Saint Félix church.

 1130

St Nazaire church becomes a cathedra (roman parts)

 October, 15th 1167

Assassination of Raimond Trencavel the 1st inside the Madeleine church.

 during XIIth century

Construction of the Old Bridge (on the ancient roman bridge's bases)

 July, 22nd 1209

Béziers is burnt by the Simon de Montfort's army
The Madeleine and St Nazaire churches are burnt too.

 1215

St Nazaire is rebuilt.

 1229

The region passes under French kingdom rules.

 1348

Black death epidemic.

 1355

The British are attempting an invasion (Prince of Cambria).

 September 8th, 1381

Revolt (the Bernard Pourquier's one) against the notables.

 1391

the Old Bridge is repaired.

 April 1436

Black Death epidemic (click to see ordonnance - in French).

 January 1420-august 21

Rebellion against the dauphin Charles.

 1471

Old Bridge enlargement.

 February 1506

Great cold wave : the Orb river and the Capestang mere are froze

 1528

François 1er creates the seneschalsy.

 August the 13th 1533

François 1er, his wife Eléonore, their children, the king and the queen of Navarre stay for a while in Béziers.

 1543

A peddler is burnt to have sold heretic books.

 1556

Establishing of the Friday market by the Seneschal Philippe de Levis.

 1561-1562

Protestants occupation.

 December 29th 1564

Charles IX (14 years old) and Catherine de Médicis spend a few days in Béziers (the mother queen is accommodated to the hôtel de Sorgues, 7 Mayran street). They can see the traditional spectacle : the galleys fight (with wheels) on the Carmes place.

 1585

The Duc de Montmorency is building the Citadelle.

 1604-1609

Birth of Pierre-Paul Riquet.

 July 18th 1622

Louis XIII spend three weeks/a month in Béziers.
He lodges in the Evéché.

 1629-1631

Black Death epidemic.

 1632

Henry 2 de Montmorency's rebellion then writing of the Edit de Béziers with the king, the queen and Richelieu.
Destruction of the Citadelle.

 1656

Molière creates and play in Béziers "Le Dépit Amoureux".

 January 3rd 1660

Visit of Louis XIV.

 October the 1st 1680

Pierre-Paul Riquet dies in Toulouse.

 May 24th 1681

Canal du Midi's Inauguration - Fonseranes' festivities.

 1695-1700

Building of St Jacques' barracks.

 1709

Re-establishment of the friday market by Louis XIV.

 1722

Black Death epidemic.

 July 9th 1745

Little earthquake + one more 2 days later.

 1746

The city hall's central part is inaugurated.

 January 1790

The first street lamps illuminate the city !

 May 17th 1792

The Caritat (charity) feasts become the Freedom feasts.

 May 19th 1803

The Caritat feasts come back.

 May 30th 1814

Riots against drinkings' taxes.

 1826

Discovery of a Fauna torso.

 1827

Battlements destruction.

 1830

Riots against drinkings' taxes (once again...)

 1838

Paul Riquet's statue and Old Graveyard inauguration.

 April 1844

Discovery of 10 roman marble heads (kept in a Toulouse museum...).

 1842-1844

Construction of the Theatre

 April 1846

Inauguration of the Pont-Neuf (new bridge)

 December 3rd-6th  1851

Republicans fight against Bonaparte's coup d'etat (bloody repression).

 1857

The railroad arrives - Bridge-canal on the Orb river.

 1870

End of the Allées P.Riquet and Poets square installations.

 1882

Construction of the "Caisse d'Epargne" (a bank avenue Clémenceau).

 1889-1891

Construction of the Halles.

 1894-1896

Construction of the National Street (Alphonse Mas) and Republic Street.

 1897

Construction of the Arenas.

 June 20th 1899

Jean Moulin's birth.

 July 2nd 1905

Assembly against viticultural crisis.

 Mars 24th 1907

1851 casualties' monument.

 May 12th 1907

Meetings and assemblies against viticultural crisis.

 1912

Post Office construction (close to the city hall).

 August 1st 1914

The General Mobilization's order is placarded. The local newspaper - 'Le Petit Méridional' - attests of a "real patriotism" in Béziers

 17 octobre 1914

The whole city wait - at the station - for the come back of a country child's - G. de Montal - corpse, hurt at war on september 26th 1914 and died in the Chambéry's hospital. The whole population stays at obsequies

 June 1936

Strikes manifestations.

 December 26th 1940

First resistants under arrest.

 November 11th 1942

German troops arrival.

 June 7th 1944

18 resistants shot on the Champ de Mars.

 July 5th 1944

German bombarding.

 August 5th 1944

Anglo-American bombarding.

 August 22th 1944

Béziers is liberated from German troops.

 1952

Construction of the sub-prefecture

 December 3rd 1947

Strikes and incidents all around the City Hall.

 1961

ASB becomes champion of the French Rugby cup.

 1962

North Africa repatriated's arrival.

 1963

Construction of the Devèze.

 1964

Swimming pool's inauguration.

 June 1968

Strikes manifestations.

 1986

Occitanie bridge.

 1987

Mediterranean Stadium.

 1994

Installation of the New Port - Construction of the l'IUT (University technical institute).

 1995

New hospital in Montimaran.

 1998

CIRDOC building - University center of Dugesclin.

 2005

Destruction of the old barracks :(

 2006

Beginning of Hours complex's works